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The Codex adheres to Chicago 16th in style; however, there are important exceptions:

Commas Outside Quotes

Words within quotation marks are quoted material, specific names or phrases, or some important text being "set off" for the reader for a reason. If a comma is not actually part of the wording, it should be outside any quotation marks:

    • "Tea," the doctor wrote, "is healthy." → "Tea", the doctor wrote, "is healthy."
    • Gaspard Bauhin. "Chaa," in Pinax theatri botanici... → Gaspard Bauhin. "Chaa", in Pinax theatri botanici...


General rules

11.3 Capitalization of foreign titles

For foreign titles of works, whether these appear in text, notes, or bibliographies, Chicago recommends a simple rule: capitalize only the words that would be capitalized in normal prose--first word of title and subtitle and all proper nouns. That is, use sentence style (see 8.156). This rule applies equally to titles using the Latin alphabet and to transliterated titles. For examples, see 14.107. For exceptions, see 14.193, 11.24, 11.42. For variations in French, see 11.30.

11.6 Foreign titles with English translation

When the title of a foreign work is mentioned in text, an English gloss often follows in parentheses (see 6.93). If the translation has not been published, the English should be capitalized sentence-style (as in the first example below; see 8.156) and should appear neither in italics nor within quotation marks. A published translation, however, is capitalized headline-style (as in the second example; see 8.157) and appears in italics or quotation marks depending on the type of work (see 8.154--95). For translations of foreign titles in notes and bibliographies, see 14.108. See also 11.7.

Leonardo Fioravanti's Compendio de i secreti rationali (Compendium of rational secrets) became a best seller.

Proust's À la recherche du temps perdu (Remembrance of Things Past) was the subject of her dissertation.

11.30 Titles of French works

French publications vary in the way they capitalize titles of works. Chicago recommends sentence style capitalization (see 8.156), the rule followed by Grevisse, Le bon usage (see 11.3, 11.28). (An exception may be made for titles of journals and periodicals, which are often capitalized headline style; see 14.193.) Note that a superscripted ordinal letter should remain in the superior position, as in the last example (cf. 14.96).

L'Apollon de Bellac: Pièce en un acte


L'exil et le royaume

Les Rougon-Macquart

Le père Goriot

Paris au XXe siècle

For another practice--in which the first substantive (noun or noun form) and any preceding article or modifier are capitalized--consult French Review, PMLA, or Romanic Review (bibliog. 5). For punctuation in titles, see 11.4.

11.59 Latin capitalization--titles of works

In English-speaking countries, titles of ancient and medieval Latin works are capitalized in sentence style--that is, only the first word in the title or subtitle, proper nouns, and proper adjectives are capitalized (see 8.156).

De bello Gallico

De viris illustribus

Cur Deus homo?

Renaissance and modern works or works in English with Latin titles are usually capitalized in the English fashion (i.e., headline style; see 8.157). (If there is any doubt about the era to which the title belongs, opt for sentence style.)

Novum Organum

Religio Medici

11.109 Titles of Japanese and Chinese works

As in English, titles of books and periodicals are italicized, and titles of articles are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks (see 8.154--95). The first word of a romanized title is always capitalized, as are many proper nouns (especially in Japanese).

Chen Shiqi, Mingdai guan shougongye de yanjiu [Studies on government-operated handicrafts during the Ming dynasty], . . .

Hua Linfu, "Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu" [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty], Zhongguo shehui kexue 1 (1999): 168--79.

Okamoto Yoshitomo, Jūrokuseiki Nichi-Ō kōtsūshi no kenkyū [Study of the intercourse between Japan and Europe during the sixteenth century], . . .

Akiyama Kenzō, "Goresu wa Ryūkyūjin de aru" [The Gores and the Ryūkyūans], Shigaku-Zasshi (or Shigaku Zasshi) . . .

11.110 Inclusion of Chinese and Japanese characters

Chinese and Japanese characters, immediately following the romanized version of the item they represent, are sometimes necessary to help readers identify references cited or terms used. They are largely confined to bibliographies and glossaries. Where needed in running text, they may be enclosed in parentheses. The advent of Unicode has made it easier for authors to include words in non-Latin alphabets in their manuscripts, but publishers need to be alerted of the need for special characters in case particular fonts are needed for publication (see 11.2).

Harootunian, Harry, and Sakai Naoki. "Nihon kenkyū to bunka kenkyū" 日本研究と文化研究. Shisō 思想 7 (July 1997): 4--53.

Hua Linfu 華林甫. "Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu" 清代以來三峽地區水旱災害的初步硏究 [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty]. Zhongguo shehui kexue 中國社會科學 1 (1999): 168--79.

That year the first assembly of the national Diet was held and the Imperial Rescript on Education (kyōiku chokugo 敎育勅語) was issued.

Citation rules

14.15 Basic structure of a note

A footnote or an endnote generally lists the author, title, and facts of publication, in that order. Elements are separated by commas; the facts of publication are enclosed in parentheses. Authors' names are presented in standard order (first name first). Titles are capitalized headline-style (see 8.157), unless they are in a foreign language (see 11.3). Titles of larger works (e.g., books and journals) are italicized; titles of smaller works (e.g., chapters, articles) or unpublished works are presented in roman and enclosed in quotation marks (see 8.161). Such terms as editor/edited by, translator/translated by, volume, and edition are abbreviated.

14.16 Basic structure of a bibliography entry

In a bibliography entry the elements are separated by periods rather than by commas; the facts of publication are not enclosed in parentheses; and the first-listed author's name, according to which the entry is alphabetized in the bibliography, is usually inverted (last name first). As in a note, titles are capitalized headline-style unless they are in a foreign language; titles of larger works (e.g., books and journals) are italicized; and titles of smaller works (e.g., chapters, articles) or unpublished works are presented in roman and enclosed in quotation marks. Noun forms such as editor, translator, volume, and edition are abbreviated, but verb forms such as edited by and translated by--abbreviated in a note--are spelled out in a bibliography. (Cf. 14.15.)

14.17 Page numbers and other locators

In notes, where reference is usually to a particular passage in a book or journal, only the page numbers (often a single page number) pertaining to that passage are given. In bibliographies, no page numbers are given for books; for easier location of journal articles or chapters or other sections of a book, the beginning and ending page numbers of the entire article or chapter are given. Electronic sources do not always include page numbers (and some that do include them repaginate according to user-defined text size). For such unpaginated works, it may be appropriate in a note to include a chapter or paragraph number (if available), a section heading, or a descriptive phrase that follows the organizational divisions of the work. In citations of shorter electronic works presented as a single, searchable document, such locators may be unnecessary.

14.18 Notes and Bibliography--Examples and Variations

The examples that follow are intended to provide an overview of the notes and bibliography style, featuring books and journal articles as models. Each example includes a numbered note and a corresponding bibliography entry. Some examples also include a shortened form of the note, suitable for subsequent citations of a source already cited in full. In practice, in works that include a bibliography that lists in full all sources cited, it is acceptable to use the shortened form in the notes even at first mention. For advice on constructing short forms for notes, see 14.24--31. For many more examples, consult the sections dealing with specific types of works throughout this chapter.

Book with single author or editor

For a book with a single author, invert the name in the bibliography but not in the notes. Punctuate and capitalize as shown. Note the shortened form in the second note. Note also that actual page numbers cited are usually included in a note but not in a bibliography entry, unless the entry is for a chapter, in which case the page range in which the item appears is included (see "Chapter in an Edited Book," below; see also 9.58--63).

1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99--100.

18. Pollan, Omnivore's Dilemma, 3.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

A book with an editor in place of an author includes the abbreviation ed. (editor; for more than one editor, use eds.). Note that the shortened form does not include ed.

1. Joel Greenberg, ed., Of Prairie, Woods, and Water: Two Centuries of Chicago Nature Writing (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 42.

33. Greenberg, Prairie, Woods, and Water, 326--27.

Greenberg, Joel, ed. Of Prairie, Woods, and Water: Two Centuries of Chicago Nature Writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Book with multiple authors

For a book with two authors, note that only the first-listed name is inverted in the bibliography entry.

2. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941--1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941--1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

For a book with three authors, adapt as follows:

15. Joyce Heatherton, James Fitzgilroy, and Jackson Hsu, Meteors and Mudslides: A Trip through . . .

Heatherton, Joyce, James Fitzgilroy, and Jackson Hsu. Meteors and Mudslides: A Trip through . . .

For a book with four or more authors, list all the authors in the bibliography entry. Word order and punctuation are the same as for two or three authors. In the note, however, cite only the name of the first-listed author, followed by et al. See also 14.76.

72. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s . . .

101. Barnes et al., Plastics . . .

Book with author plus editor or translator

In a book with an editor or translator in addition to the author, ed. or trans. in the note becomes Edited by or Translated by in the bibliography entry. See also 14.88.

1. Gabriel García Márquez, Love in the Time of Cholera, trans. Edith Grossman (London: Cape, 1988), 242--55.

18. García Márquez, Cholera, 33.

García Márquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape, 1988

Chapter in an edited book

When citing a chapter or similar part of an edited book, include the chapter author; the chapter title, in quotation marks; and the editor. Precede the title of the book with in. Note the location of the page range for the chapter in the bibliography entry. See also 14.111--17.

1. Glenn Gould, "Streisand as Schwarzkopf," in The Glenn Gould Reader, ed. Tim Page (New York: Vintage, 1984), 310.

19. Gould, "Streisand as Schwarzkopf," 309.

Gould, Glenn. "Streisand as Schwarzkopf." In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308--11. New York: Vintage, 1984.

Journal article

Citations of journals include the volume and issue number and date of publication. The volume number follows the italicized journal title in roman and with no intervening punctuation. A specific page reference is included in the notes; the page range for an article is included in the bibliography. In the full citation, page numbers are preceded by a colon. If a journal is paginated consecutively across a volume or if the month or season appears with the year, the issue number may be omitted (as in the second and third sets of examples below).

89. Walter Blair, "Americanized Comic Braggarts," Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331--32.

111. Blair, "Americanized Comic Braggarts," 335.

Blair, Walter. "Americanized Comic Braggarts." Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331--49.

The DOI in the following example indicates that the article was consulted online; it is preferred to a URL (see also 14.5, 14.6). Note that DOI, so capitalized when mentioned in running text, is lowercased and followed by a colon (with no space after) in source citations. Shortened citations for subsequent references to an online source follow the forms for printed books and journals.

1. William J. Novak, "The Myth of the ‘Weak' American State," American Historical Review 113 (June 2008): 758, doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

3. Novak, "Myth," 770.

Novak, William J. "The Myth of the ‘Weak' American State." American Historical Review 113 (June 2008): 752--72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

For articles that have not been assigned a DOI (or if the DOI cannot be determined), include a URL. The URL in the following example--consulted through the academic journals archive JSTOR--was listed along with the article as a more stable (and shorter) alternative to the URL that appeared in the browser's address bar. For access dates (not shown here), see 14.185.

12. Wilfried Karmaus and John F. Riebow, "Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls," Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 645,

Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. "Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls." Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 643--47.

14.80 Anonymous works--known authorship

If the authorship is known or guessed at but was omitted on the title page, the name is included in brackets.

10. [Samuel Horsley], On the Prosodies of the Greek and Latin Languages (London, 1796).

11. [Ebenezer Cook?], Sotweed Redivivus; or, The Planter's Looking-Glass, by "E. C.Gent" (Annapolis, 1730).

[Cook, Ebenezer?]. Sotweed Redivivus; or, The Planter's Looking-Glass. By "E. C. Gent." Annapolis, 1730.

[Horsley, Samuel]. On the Prosodies of the Greek and Latin Languages. London, 1796.

14.97 Subtitles--the colon

A colon, also italicized, is used to separate the main title from the subtitle. A space follows the colon. The subtitle, like the title, always begins with a capital letter. See also 8.162, 8.163.

Weiss, Andrea. In the Shadow of the Magic Mountain: The Erika and Klaus Mann Story. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Although in European bibliographic style a period often separates title from subtitle, English-language publications need not follow that convention for foreign titles. See also 14.107.

Fausts Himmelfahrt: Zur letzten Szene der Tragädie

14.106 Older titles and very long titles

Titles of works published in the eighteenth century or earlier may retain their original punctuation, spelling, and capitalization (except for whole words in capital letters, which should be given an initial capital only). Very long titles may be shortened in a bibliography or a note, omissions being indicated by three ellipsis dots within a title and four at the end (see 13.51).

Escalante, Bernardino. A Discourse of the Navigation which the Portugales doe make to the Realmes and Provinces of the East Partes of the Worlde. . . . Translated by John Frampton. London, 1579.

Ray, John. Observations Topographical, Moral, and Physiological: Made in a Journey Through part of the Low-Countries, Germany, Italy, and France: with A Catalogue of Plants not Native of England . . . Whereunto is added A Brief Account of Francis Willughby, Esq., his Voyage through a great part of Spain. [London], 1673.

14.107 Non-English titles

Sentence-style capitalization is strongly recommended for non-English titles (see 11.3). Capitalize the first word of a title or subtitle and any word that would be capitalized in the original language (e.g., Wahrheit, Sowjetunion, and Inquisición in examples 2 and 3). Writers or editors unfamiliar with the usage of the language concerned, however, should not attempt to alter capitalization without expert help. For English forms of foreign cities, see 14.137.

1. Danielle Maisonneuve, Jean-François Lamarche, and Yves St-Amand, Les relations publiques: Dans une société en mouvance (Sainte-Foy, QC: Presses de l'Université de Québec, 1998).

2. Gabriele Krone-Schmalz, In Wahrheit sind wir stärker: Frauenalltag in der Sowjetunion (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1992).

3. Daniel Muñoz Sempere, La Inquisición española como tema literario: Política, historia y ficción en la crisis del antiguo régimen (Woodbridge, UK: Tamesis, 2008).

4. G. Martellotti et al., La letteratura italiana: Storia e testi, vol. 7 (Milan: Riccardo Ricciardi, 1955).

5. Ljiljana Piletić Stojanović, ed., Gutfreund i češki kubizam (Belgrade: Muzej savremene umetnosti, 1971).

14.111 Chapter in a single-author book

When a specific chapter (or other titled part of a book) is cited in the notes, the author's name is followed by the title of the chapter (or other part), followed by in, followed by the title of the book. The chapter title is enclosed in quotation marks. Either the inclusive page numbers (see 9.60) or the chapter or part number is usually given also. In the bibliography, either the chapter or the book may be listed first. For a multiauthor work, see 14.112. See also 14.160.

1. Brendan Phibbs, "Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle," in The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II (Boston: Little, Brown, 1987), 117--63.

8. John Samples, "The Origins of Modern Campaign Finance Law," chap. 7 in The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006).

33. Samples, "Campaign Finance Law," 30--31.

Phibbs, Brendan. "Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle." In The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II, 117--63. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.

Samples, John. "The Origins of Modern Campaign Finance Law." Chap. 7 in The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.


Samples, John. The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. See esp. chap. 7, "The Origins of Modern Campaign Finance Law."

14.121 Volume numbers and page numbers

In documentation, volume numbers are always given in arabic numerals, even if in the original work they appear in roman numerals or are spelled out. If the volume number is immediately followed by a page number, the abbreviation vol. is omitted and a colon separates the volume number from the page number with no intervening space. See the examples throughout this section.

14.137 Foreign city names

The Codex takes Wikipedia (en) names to be the "current, commonly used English name", even if that contradicts the examples provided by Chicago.

Current, commonly used English names for foreign cities should be used whenever such forms exist.

Belgrade (not Beograd)

Cologne (not Köln)

Mexico City (not México)

Milan (not Milano)

Munich (not München)

Prague (not Praha)

Rome (not Roma)

The Hague (not den Haag)

Turin (not Torino)

Vienna (not Wien)

14.203 Newspaper citations--basic elements

The name of the author (if known) and the headline or column heading in a daily newspaper are cited much like the corresponding elements in magazines (see 14.199--202). The month (often abbreviated), day, and year are the indispensable elements. Because a newspaper's issue of any given day may include several editions, and items may be moved or eliminated in various editions, page numbers may usually be omitted (for an example of a page number in a citation, see 14.209). In a note or bibliographical entry, it may be useful to add "final edition," "Midwest edition," or some such identifier. If the paper is published in several sections, the section number or name may be given (e.g., sec. 1). To cite an article consulted online, include the URL; in some cases, it may be advisable to shorten a particularly unwieldy URL to end after the first single forward slash (i.e., the slash that follows a domain extension such as .com).

1. Editorial, Philadelphia Inquirer, July 30, 1990.

2. Mike Royko, "Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold," Chicago Tribune, September 23, 1992.

3. Christopher Lehmann-Haupt, "Robert Giroux, Editor, Publisher and Nurturer of Literary Giants, Is Dead at 94," New York Times, September 6, 2008, New York edition.

4. "Pushcarts Evolve to Trendy Kiosks," Lake Forester (Lake Forest, IL), March 23, 2000.

5. Julie Bosman, "Jets? Yes! Sharks? ¡Sí! in Bilingual ‘West Side,' " New York Times, July 17, 2008,

14.310 UK legal cases

In Bluebook style, the basic elements in citations to UK legal cases are similar to those used in US law citations: the name of the case, in roman (cases involving the Crown use the abbreviation "R" for Rex or Regina); the date, which is enclosed in parentheses when the volumes of the reporter are numbered cumulatively, or in square brackets when the year is essential to locating the case (there is either no volume number or the volumes for each year are numbered anew, not cumulatively); the abbreviated name of the reporter; and the opening page of the decision. If the court is not apparent from the nameof the reporter, or if the jurisdiction is not clear from context, include either or both, as necessary, in parentheses. Until recently, the courts of highest appeal in the United Kingdom (except for criminal cases in Scotland) had been the House of Lords (H.L.) and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (P.C.). In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was established. In 2009 it assumed the jurisdiction of the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords and the devolution jurisdiction of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Most cases are cited to the applicable report in the Law Reports, among these the Appeal Cases (A.C.), Queen's (King's) Bench (Q.B., K.B.), Chancery (Ch.), Family (Fam.), and Probate (P.) reports. For other reports applicable to cases dating back to AD 1094, consult The Bluebook.

10. R v. Dudley and Stephens, (1884) 14 Q.B.D. 273 (D.C.).

11. Regal (Hastings) Ltd. v. Gulliver and Ors, [1967] 2 A.C. 134 (H.L.) (Eng.).

14.312 UK statutes

More often cited in notes than in bibliographies, the Acts of Parliament are identified by title (in roman), year (also include the regnal year for statutes enacted before 1963), and chapter number (c. for chapter; arabic numeral for national number, lowercase roman for local). Monarchs' names in regnal-year citations are abbreviated as follows: Car. (Charles), Edw., Eliz., Geo., Hen., Jac. (James), Phil. & M., Rich., Vict., Will., W. & M. The year precedes the name; the monarch's ordinal, if any, follows it (15 Geo. 6), both in arabic numerals. An ampersand is used between regnal years and between names of dual monarchs (1 & 2 W. & M.). The Bluebook advises including the jurisdiction if it is not clear from the context or the citation (example 8).

7. Act of Settlement, 1701, 12 & 13 Will. 3, c. 2.

8. Consolidated Fund Act, 1963, c. 1 (Eng.).

9. Manchester Corporation Act, 1967, c. xl.

The three chief compilations of statutory material for the United Kingdom are the following:

  • The Statutes of the Realm. Statutes from 1235 through 1948, with the exception of the years 1642-- 60.
  • Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, ed. C. H. Firth and R. S. Rait, 3 vols. (London, 1911). Statutes for the years 1642--60.
  • Public General Acts and Measures, published annually since 1831 by HMSO. An additional source is the UK Statute Law Database, which has been available to the public since 2006 and is published with authority of the British Crown; the Statute Law Database draws on The Statutes of the Realm and its official revisions.